Some notes on Khomeini, based on his 150-page book, "Islamic Government": 1) Amazing revolutionary. Khomeini made clear that Islam requires Muslims to pursue justice, to fight tyranny and oppression, and to serve the people by enacting Islamic principles. 115-116.) "Present Islam to the people in its true form, so that our youth do not picture the akhunds as sitting in some corner in Najaf or Qum, studying the questions of menstruation and parturition instead of concerning themselves with politics. In order to attain the unity and freedom of the Muslim peoples, we must overthrow the oppressive governments installed by the imperialists and bring into existence an Islamic government of justice that will be in the service of the people." (pp. 48-49.) 3) Khomeini believes the government should be governed by Islamic ideas and enforced by Muslim jurists. He repeatedly states that the same laws that governed people during the Prophet's era -- ie, cutting off of hands, stoning, etc. Specifically, Khomeini rejects democracy, claims that the Quran and Sunna of the Prophet should govern all (rather than the will of the people), and claims that the faqih - - a jurist both just and knowledgeable of all Islamic law - - should govern the people without checks and balances from a legislative or judicial branch of government. "Islamic government is not constitutional in the current sense of the word, i.e., based on the approval of laws in accordance with the opinion of the majority. The fundamental difference between Islamic government, on the one hand, and constitutional monarchies and republics, on the other, is this: whereas the representatives of the people or the monarch in such regimes engage in legislation, in Islam the legislative power and competence to establish laws belongs exclusively to God Almighty. 5) Khomeini basically believed that God appointed him leader of Iran, and there's a surprising lack of humility when he discusses the role of the Islamic ruler. Khomeini says the ruler of an Islamic government must be a faqih who has knowledge of the provisions and ordinances of Islam and who is just, in that he has excellence in belief and morals. Anyone who wishes to enact the penalties provided by Islam (i.e., to implement the penal code), to supervise the public treasury and the income and expenditures of the state, and to have God assign to him the power to administer the affairs of His creatures must not be a sinner. Just as the Most Noble Messenger was the proof of God -- the conduct of all affairs being entrusted to him so that whoever disobeyed him had a proof advanced against him -- so, too, the fuqaha are the proof of the Imam to the people. God will advance a proof and argument against anyone who disobeys them in anything concerning government, the conduct of Muslim affairs, or the gathering and expenditure of public funds." (p. 6) Khomeini believed that an Islamic ruler steps into the shoes of the Prophet and the Imams. For in fact the most important function of the prophets is the establishment of a just social system through the implementation of laws and ordinances. This is possible only by establishing government and implementing laws, whether this is accomplished by the prophet himself, as was the case with the Most Noble Messenger or by the followers who come after him." (p. 76-77) 7) Khomeini provides that the true ruler of the People is Islamic law, that the jurist is not above Islamic law, and that a jurist that acts contrary to Islamic law must be dismissed. Muslims and the people in general are free within the limits laid down by the law; when they are acting in accordance with the provisions of the law, no one has the right to them, 'Sit here,' or 'Go there.'... When an Islamic government is established, all will live with complete security under the protection of the law, and no ruler will have the right to take any step contrary to the provisions and laws of the immaculate shari'a" (pp. Also, implicit in Khomeini's argument here is an assumption he explicitly states earlier, which is that Islam is an all-encompassing religion, which is why he believes that the fuqaha should basically have power over all aspects of running the country -- ie, he believes that the religion actually has rules governing every aspect of a country. If we were to calculate one-fifth of the surplus income of all the Muslim countries (or of the whole world, should it enter the fold of Islam), it would become fully apparent that teh purpose for the imposition of such a tax is not merely the upkeep of the sayyids or the religious scholars, but on the contrary, something far more significant -- namely, meeting the financial needs of the great organs and institutions of government. The khums of the bazaar of Baghdad would be enough for the needs of the sayyids and the upkeep of the religious teaching institution ....The provision of such a huge budget must obviously be for the purpose of forming a government and administering the Islamic lands. 44-45.) 9) Khomeini believed that Islam must be a practical religion that actually affects people's lives. If the ordinances of Islam are not applied and the penal provisions of the law are not implemented in the external world -- so that the thief, the plunderer, the oppressor, and the embezzler all go unpunished, while we content ourselves with preserving thebooks of law, kissing them and laying them aside (even treating the Qu'ran itself this way), and reciting Ya-Sin on Thursday nights -- can we say that Islam has been preserved" (p.
He was the leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the end of his life. Imam Khomeini's movement and the victory of the Islamic Revolution had several impacts on the world and led to establishment of political movements based on Islamic thoughts. In the last 10 years of his life, when he was the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, he lived in a humble house located in Jamaran (a district of Tehran.) He was loved by the majority.