It must answer higher level questions such as synthesizing, analyzing, etc.
It also means that composing is staged across various phases of rumination, investigation, consultation with others, drafting, feedback, revision, and perfecting." "...all students can learn to write and that writing is the most visible expression not only of what their students know but also of how well they have learned it." "Many state writing assessments run the risk of undercutting good writing by scoring only for focus, organization, style and mechanics without once asking judges to consider whether the writing is powerful, memorable, provacative, or moving (all impact-related criteria, and all at the heart of why people read what others write." "A key element in such systemic change is finding a core group of teachers who write and are enthusiastic about teaching it." ch. It also assumed that reading should be taught before writing and that instruction in the latter should focus on extrinisic (linguistic and stylistic) conventions of writing and eradication of errors." "Researchers have long questioned the assumption that instruction in grammar, usage, and punctuation by itself will yield better writing." "The cycles and recycles through subprocesses that can be described this way: 1. It engages students in a series of cognitive processes, such as reflection, analysis, and synthesis, so that they are required to transform the information from the reading material or other sources in order to complete the writing assignment." "A typical 8th grade assignment asks students to write to the teacher explaining how to open a shcool locker. The standards movement has helped to focus attention on writing in all disciplines and to push for consistency within standards, assessment and rubrics." "To know how well students are doing, teachers and administrators should use or consider-extended writing samples, -writing in mulitiple genres, -valid rubrics, -writing over time, across genres and content areas, and -student participation in developing assessment." "Self-assessment of strengths and weaknesses, strategies used to improve writing, and their progress and goals for writing can be used to demonstrate their learning...they should be asked periodically to reflect on their writing strategies as well as their goals and progress." "Provide Vision and Leadership: 1. 4. Enlist teacher leaders as advocates for improving the teaching of writing in all classrooms. 5. Commit time and provide the necessary resources, such as professional development, research materials, and workshops for teachers to develop as writers and learn about research-proven classroom strategies. 7. Find practical solutions to such problems as scheduling and funding." "Conduct a Districtwide or Schoolwide Writing Survey: Collecting Samples of student writing and teachers' assignments within and across grade levels generates indispensable data for assessing the state of writing in a given district or school and for focusing attention on specific curricular needs. Samples of distinct genres and types of writing (narrative, persuasive, analytical, personal, and so on) from diverse subject areas should be discussed and evaluated by faculty to help identify standards and common expectations. -do teachers share a common understanding of how students develop as writers and how wrtiing can be a tool for learning in all disciplines? -do teachers discuss writing as process with students? Tchr encourages students to draw on prior knowledge and interests in their writing as a way to engage their thinking in authentic learning tasks. 5. Students are asked to assess the scope or the purpose in terms of time available and word limits appropriate for writing task. Most of a teacher's time is spent in class teaching writing skills and inquiry strategies. Assignments are designed with explicit steps to help students focus purpose, organize thoguhts, and develop ideas with specific inquiry strategies. Students are encouraged to revise, edit, and improve-and to correct drafts and then resubmit.
Quite honestly, this is a book for administrators and school boards or people who pull the strings. Many studies suggest that students not only write less in language arts classrooms but they may not write at all most of their other classes. Yet, ask ten English teachers if their classes are content-based or writing-based. What good is it to ask our science, math, and social studies teachers to use writing in their classes if they have not been trained on the matter? I'll also assume that many of those same teachers might be willing to do it if they were assured that they only had to assess the content of the piece..and leave the grammar to the English types.
If you're looking for evidence to support your argument for writing in your pedagogy, that you'll find here--and used wisely, you will make your point.
I personally got a lot of ideas and new approaches from this book, but I know that I alone cannot do much in my school.
Writing needs to be taught across all areas, not only in writing class, but also in math class (exit slips, what have I learned, what do I want to know?