(k:Bruner) 370.11 BRU Back Cover review: ...Jerome Bruner shows that the basic concepts of science and humanities can be grasped intuitively at a very early age.... should be designed to foster such early intuition and then build on them in increasingly formal and abstract ways as education to be progress. Books mentioned: Toward a Theory of Instruction by Jerome Bruner (How to apply theory of "Process of Education". It was based upon the theories of Jerome Bruner, particularly his concept of the "spiral curriculum" School Mathematics Study Group (SMSG) Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC) Biological Sciences Curriculum Study The University of Illinois Arithmetic Project,created in 1958, directed by Professor David A. Chap 2: The important of structure Chap 3: The readiness of learning Chap 4: Intuitive and analytic thinking Chap 5: Motives for learning Chap 6: Aids to teaching p13 ... Chap 3 p43 So too with the teaching of physics, which has much in it that can be profitably taught at an inductive or intuitive level much earlier. Basic notions in these field are perfectly accessible to children of seven to ten years of ages, provided that they are divorced from their mathematical expression and studied through materials that the child can handle itself. Statistical manipulation and computation are only tools to be used after intuitive understanding has been established. On the one hand, an individual is said to think intuitively when, have worked for a long time on a problem, he rather suddenly achieves the solution, one for which he has yet to provide a formal proof. 3.formal operations (by Geneva school) The acting of learning 3 process p48 1.Acquisition of knowledge. James Samuel Coleman David Riesman P71 (commentator of american secondary school social setting) Chap 6 Aids to teaching 1. A lot of theories match to my observation of my child mental development, and basic the same to my own education theory. The trouble in today education is not "children can not learning", but learn something not appropriate to brain capacity, e.g Arithmetic in K-5, 100% guarantee failure, Children train to by rote, not by understanding, the basic structure are far deep, and could not easily by children by such young age.
Some quotes below are considered: Chapter 1: introduction "The main objective of this work has been to present subject matter effectively-that is, with due regard not only for coverage but also the structure." This is the foundation of our approach that all disciplines have within fundamental structures in the way that they understand the world. These studies have stimulated a renewed interest in complex learning of a kind that one finds in schools, learning designed to produce general understanding of the structure of the subject matter." 6 Bruner describes these transferable understandings or features of knowledge as"tropisms". Whether the students knows the formal names of these operations is less important to the transfer and whether he is able to use them."8 "Good teaching that emphasises the structure of the subject is probably even more valuable for less able students than 51, it is the former rather than the latter who is most easily thrown off the track by poor teaching" "Ideally schools should allow students to go ahead in different subject as rapidly as they can. One can imagine a kindergarten game is designed to make children more actively alert to how things effect or are connected with each other-a kind of introduction to the idea of multiple determination of events in the physical and social world" "To recapitulate, the main theme of this chapter has been that the curriculum of the subject should be determined by the most fundamental understanding that can be achieved of the underlying principles that gives structure to that subject" The best way to create interest in the subject is to render it worth knowing, which means to make the knowledge gained usable in once thinking beyond the situation in which the learning has occurred" Chapter 3: readiness for learning "We begin with the hypothesis that any subject can be taught effectively in some intellectual honesty form to any child at any stage of development." 33 What is most important teaching basic concepts is that the child can be helped to past progressively from concrete thinking to the utilisation of more conceptually adequate modes of thought. Given this inappropriate start he is easily led to believe that the important thing is for him to be "accurate"-though accuracy has less to do with mathematics and computation." "Curriculum ought to be built around the great issues, principles, and values that a society deems worthy of the continual concern of its members." 52 Chapter 4: intuitive and analytical thinking.
He suggests that teachers tend to gravitate to tools for the sake of the tool rather than for a directly applicable use of that tool in facilitating transfer of learning.